The term embedded systems refers to low-level electronic systems including programmable components. Embedded systems hence result from the interaction of hardware and software. Examples include washing machines and printers but also machine control systems, intelligent sensors and complete vehicle systems. What they all have in common is the interaction of hardware (circuit boards) and software embedded on semiconductor elements. This domain thus differs from purely applicative software on servers or smartphone apps and PC programs.

Due to increasing automation and networking trends like Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) or Smart Home, the domain of embedded systems is gaining in extent and importance. It is subject to basic requirements and challenges like security, autonomy, scarce resources and connectivity.